Knowledge Area #6 – Human Resource
• Sexism, racism or other discrimination should never be tolerated, no matter what the circumstances. You must separate your team from discriminatory practices, even if those practices are normal in the country where you’re working.
• Human Resource is the only knowledge area where EEFs (Enterprise Environmental Factors) are updated and hence are outputs of Develop and Manage Team. HR and their skills are EEFs.
1. Plan Human Resource Management
• include roles and responsibilities (identify resources that can take up the responsibilities) as documented (ownership of deliverables) in RAM in the form of RACI chart (matrix) or in a chart/text form, org charts – an organizational breakdown structure (OBS) and staffing management plan – staff acquisition, release, resource calendar, resource histogram, training, rewards, compliance & safety requirements
• The OBS displays organizational relationships and then uses them for assigning work to resources in a project (WBS)
• networking is useful in understanding skills of individuals and the political and interpersonal factors within the organization
• org chart indicates the reporting structure of the project
• The four letters of RACI stands for:
o Responsible – Which project member is responsible for carrying out the execution of the task?
o Accountable – The Project member who is held accountable for the tasks and be given the authority to make decisions? In general, there should only be 1 member accountable for the project task.
o Consulted – The stakeholders that should be consulted for the work or be included in the decision making (to be engaged in two-way communication).
o Informed – Who should be informed of the decisions or progresses of the work by means of email updates, progress reports, etc. (one-way communication)?
o The RACI chart is a tool for tracking the tools for tracking the roles and responsibilities of project members for specific project tasks during project execution.
o While there can be unlimited number of members responsible for the execution of a project task, there should only be one member accountable for the same task. Fixing the accountability to a single person will allow the project team members to know which person to go to should they need to know the progresses or details of the task. This can also avoid the false assumption that the other person (if there are more than one accountable) accountable for the task has taken care of the task but in the end no one has looked after the task.
o The member responsible and accountable can be the same for small tasks.
2. Acquire Project Team
• pre-assignment is the selection of certain team members in advance
• acquisition is to acquire resources from outside through hiring consultants or subcontractin
• includes bringing on contractors / consultants
• halo effect: a cognitive bias (if he is good at one thing, he will be good at everything)
• Multi-criteria Decision Analysis: to select team members based on a no. of factors: availability, cost, experience, ability, knowledge, skills, attitude, etc.
• training is usually paid for by the organization, not project
3. Develop Project Team
• enhancing and improving overall team performance
• offer feedback, support, engage team members, manage conflicts, facilitate cooperation
• cross-train people
• team performance assessments : assess team performance as a whole vs project performance appraisals: individual performance
• training cost can be set within the project budget or supported by the organization
• PM Authority: legitimate (assigned in project charter), reward, penalty, expert (need to be earned), referent (charisma and likable, or ally with people with higher power), representative (elected as representative)
• Expert > Reward are best forms of power. Penalty is worst.
• Tuckman Model: Forming – Storming – Norming – Performing – Adjourning
• cultural difference should be considered when determining award and recognition
• recognition should focus on win-win reward for the team (NOT competitive-based)
• team building is important throughout the whole project period
• Motivational Theories
o Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – personal needs (Physiological > Security > Social > Esteem > Self Actualization)
o Herzberg’s Hygiene Theory – satisfaction (motivators) vs dissatisfaction (hygiene factors to avoid dissatisfaction but do not provide satisfaction, also called KITA factors e.g. incentives/punishments), hygiene factors include good working conditions, a satisfying personal life, and good relations with the boss and coworkers
o Expectancy Theory – Expectancy (extra work will be rewarded) Instrumentality (good results will be rewarded) Valence (the individual’s expected reward), for a person to be motivated, efforts/performance/outcome must be matched – will only work hard for achievable goals
o Achievement Theory – three motivation needs: achievement (nAch), power (nPow), affiliation (nAff), best is a balanced style for the PM
o Contingency Theory – task-oriented/relationship-oriented with stress level (high stress ->task-oriented better)
o Leadership Theory includes: analytical (with expertise), autocratic (with power), bureaucratic, charismatic, consultative, driver (micromanagement), influencing, laissez-faire (stay out)
o Theory X – assumes employees are lazy and avoid work, need incentive/threats/close supervising
o Theory Y – assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated, will perform given the right conditions
o Theory Z – (Japanese) increasing loyalty by providing job for life with focus on well-being of employee (on and off job), produces high productivity and morale
o Situational Continuum Leadership – directing/telling > coaching/selling (manager define the work) > supporting/participating (subordinate define the work) > delegating according to maturity/capability of the subordinate
4. Manage Project Team
• track team member performance, provide feedback, resolve issues
• when managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making
• issue log is fed from Manage Stakeholder Engagement – used to understand who is responsible for resolving specific issues
• conflict management: conflicts force a search for alternatives, need openness, not personal, focus on present and future
• conflicts: schedule, project priority, resources, technical opinions, administrative overhead (too much administration work), cost, personality
• conflict resolution
o collaborate/problem solve[confrontation of problem] (best)
o compromise/reconcile (give-and-take, temporary/partially resolve)
o force/direct (worst/short-lived)
o smooth/accommodate (emphasis common grounds and avoid/touch lightly the disagreements for harmony/relationship)
o withdraw/avoid (other leads to lose-lose)
o compromise is lose-lose
o Forcing would only provide a temporary solution
• Award decisions are made during the process of project performance appraisals
• monitoring and controlling is typically performed by functional managers/HR for functional org
Knowledge Area #7 – Communication
• Assure the timely collection, generation, distribution, storage, retrieval and ultimate disposition of project information
• Very important to the ultimate success of the project
• Message transmission: 7% in word, 38% in vocal pitch, 55% in body language (Albert Mehrabian)
• Don’t wait to communication good/bad news – BE TRANSPARENT AND OPEN
• The sender has the responsibility to ensure the receiver correctly understand the message
• If part of the project is procured, more formal written communication will be expected