Plan Human Resource Management
Something very important from exam standpoint –
Sexism, racism or other discrimination should never be tolerated, no matter what the circumstances. You must separate your team from discriminatory practices, even if those practices are normal in the country where you’re working.
Human Resource Processes:
§ plan to organize and lead the project team
§ include (identify resources that can take up the responsibilities) as documented (ownership of deliverables) in (matrix) or in a chart/text form, – an organizational breakdown structure (OBS) and – staff acquisition, release, resource calendar, resource histogram, training, rewards, compliance & safety requirements
§ The and then uses them for assigning work to resources in a project (WBS)
§ networking is useful in understanding skills of individuals and the political and interpersonal factors within the organization
§ org chart indicated the reporting structure of the project
§ The four letters of stands for:
§ – Which project member is for carrying out the execution of the task?
§ – The Project member who is held for the tasks and be given the authority to make decisions? In general, there should for the project task.
§ – The stakeholders that should be for the work or be included in the decision making (to be engaged in two-way communication).
§ – Who should be of the decisions or progresses of the work by means of email updates, progress reports, etc. (one-way communication)?
§ The RACI chart is a tool for tracking the tools for tracking the roles and responsibilities of project members for specific project tasks during project execution.
§ While there can be unlimited number of members responsible for the execution of a project task, there should only be for the same task. Fixing the accountability to a single person will allow the project team members to know which person to go to should they need to know the progresses or details of the task. This can also avoid the false assumption that the other person (if there are more than one accountable) accountable for the task has taken care of the task but in the end no one has looked after the task.
§ The member responsible and accountable can be the same for small tasks.
§ Below is an example of the RACI chart for a website project:
§ to acquire the project team
§ pre-assignment is the selection of certain team members in advance
§ acquisition is to acquire resources from through hiring consultants or subcontracting
§ includes bringing on contractors / consultants
§ : a cognitive bias (if he is good at one thing, he will be good at everything)
§ Multi-criteria Decision Analysis: to select team members based on a no. of factors: availability, cost, experience, ability, knowledge, skills, attitude, etc.
§ training is usually paid for by the organization, not project
§ enhancing and improving overall team performance
§ offer feedback, support, engage team members, manage conflicts, facilitate cooperation
§ cross-train people
§ : assess team performance as a whole project performance appraisals: individual performance
§ training cost can be set within the project budget or supported by the organization
§ PM Authority: legitimate (assigned in project charter), reward, penalty, (need to be earned), referent (charisma and likable, or ally with people with higher power), representative (elected as representative)
§ are best forms of power. Penalty is worst.
§ Tuckman Model: Forming – Stroming – Norming – Performing – Adjourning
§ cultural difference should be considered when determining award and recognition
§ recognition should focus on win-win reward for the team (NOT competitive-based)
§ team building is important throughout the whole project period
§ Motivational Theories
§ – personal needs (Physiological > Security > Social > Esteem > Self Actualization)
§ – satisfaction (motivators) vs dissatisfaction (hygiene factors to avoid dissatisfaction but do not provide satisfaction, also called KITA factors e.g. incentives/punishments), hygiene factors include good working conditions, a satisfying personal life, and good relations with the boss and coworkers
§ – (extra work will be rewarded) (good results will be rewarded) (the individual’s expected reward), for a person to be motivated, efforts/performance/outcome must be matched – will only work hard
§ – three motivation needs: achievement (nAch), power (nPow), affiliation (nAff), best is a balanced style for the PM
§ – task-oriented/relationship-oriented with stress level (high stress -> task-oriented better)
§ Leadership Theory
§ including: analytical (with expertise), autocratic (with power), bureaucratic, charismatic, consultative, driver (micromanagement), influencing, laissez-faire (stay out)
§ – assumes employees are lazy and avoid work, need incentive/threats/close supervising
§ – assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated, will perform given the right conditions
§ – (japanese) increasing loyalty by providing job for life with focus on well-being of employee (on and off job), produces high productivity and morale
§ – directing/telling > coaching/selling (manager define the work) > supporting/participating (subordinate define the work) > delegating according to maturity/capability of the subordinate
§ track team member performance, provide feedback, resolve issues
§ when managed properly, differences of opinion can lead to increased creativity and better decision making
§ is fed from Manage Stakeholder Engagement – used to understand who is responsible for resolving specific issues
§ : conflicts force a search for alternatives, need openness, not personal, focus on present and future
§ : schedule, project priority, resources, technical opinions, administrative overhead (too much administration work), cost, personality
§ /problem solve[confrontation of problem] (best)
§ /reconcile (give-and-take, temporary/partially resolve)
§ force/direct (worst/short-lived)
§ /accommodate (emphasis common grounds and /touch lightly the disagreements for harmony/relationship)
§ withdraw/avoid (other leads to lose-lose)
§ compromise is lose-lose
§ would only provide a temporary solution
§ Award decisions are made during the process of project performance appraisals
§ monitoring and controlling is typically performed by functional managers/HR for functional org