Tuesday, 25 October 2016

Education Edge PMP PMBOK Week 4 Office Read - Cost Knowledge Area


Cost Management Knowledge Area:

 
Project Cost Management includes the processes involved in planning, estimating, budgeting, financing, funding, managing, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget.

 

Project Cost Management is primarily concerned with the cost of the resources needed to complete project activities.

 

The knowledge area of Project Cost Management consists of the following four processes:

 

Process Name
Project Management Process Group
Key Deliverables
Plan Cost Management
Planning
Cost management Plan
Estimate Costs
Planning
Activity Cost Estimates, Basis of Estimates
Determine Budget
Planning
Cost Baseline
Control Costs
Monitoring and Controlling
Work Performance Information

 

Plan Cost Management process establishes the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, managing, expending, and controlling project costs.

 

Cost management plan includes:

·       Units of measure

·       Level of precision

·       Level of accuracy

·       Organizational procedures links

·       Control thresholds

·       Rules of performance measurement

 

The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Plan Cost Management process are given below:

 

Project Management Plan
Expert Judgment
Cost Management Plan
Project Charter
Analytical Techniques
 
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Meetings
 
Organizational Process Assets
 
 

 

Estimate Costs is the process of developing an approximation of funds needed to complete project activities.

 

The project in the initiation phase has a rough order of magnitude (ROM) -25% to +75%

 

Later with more information is knows, definitive estimates could narrow the range of accuracy to -5% to +10%

 

Direct Costs are attributed directly to the project work and cannot be shared among projects (wages, material, equipment, etc.).

 

Indirect Costs are overhead costs that incurred for the benefit of more than one project (taxes, training, software licenses etc.).

 

Variable Costs vary depending on the amount of work or production (cost of materials, supplies, wages, etc.).

 

Fixed Costs remain constant throughout the project (cost of office setup, rentals, etc.).

 

Cost of quality includes all costs incurred over the life of the product.

 

Contingency Reserves are used for known risks, which are specifically identified risks.

 

Management Reserves are used to accommodate unknown risks, or unidentified risks.

 

Rolling Wave is a common technique used to estimate high-risk projects.

 

The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Estimate Costs process are given below:

 

Cost Management Plan
Expert Judgment
Activity Cost Estimates
Human Resource Management Plan
Analogous Estimating
Basis of Estimates
Scope Baseline
Parametric Estimating
Project Documents updates
Project Schedule
Bottom-up Estimating
 
Risk Register
Three-Point Estimating
 
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Reserve Analysis
 
Organizational Process Assets
Cost of Quality
 
 
Project Management Software
 
 
Vendor Bid Analysis
 
 
Group Decision Making Techniques
 

 

Determine Budget is the process of aggregating the estimated cost of individual activities or work packages to establish an authorized cost baseline.

 

The cost baseline is the approved version of the time-phased project budget.

 

Cost baseline includes all authorized budgets, but excludes management reserves.

 

Cost baseline can only be changed through formal change control procedures.

 

Project Cost performance will be measured against the authorized budget.

 

Cost estimates are aggregated by work packages in accordance with the WBS.

 

The expenditure of funds should be reconciled with any funding limits on the commitment of funds for the project.

 

Total funding requirements and periodic funding requirements (e.g., quarterly, annually) are derived from the cost baseline.

 

 

 

 

 

The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Determine Budget process are given below:

 

Cost Management Plan
Cost Aggregation
Cost Baseline
Scope Baseline
Reserve Analysis
Project Funding Requirements
Activity Cost Estimates
Expert Judgment
Project Documents updates
Basis of Estimates
Historical Relationships
 
Project Schedule
Funding Limit Reconciliation
 
Resource Calendars
 
 
Risk Register
 
 
Agreements
 
 
Organizational Process Assets
 
 

 

Control Cost is the process of monitoring status of the project to update the project budget and managing changes to the cost baseline.

 

Monitoring cost performance to isolate and understand variances from the approved cost baseline.

 

Cost baseline compared with actual results.

 

Project cost controls seeks out the causes of positive and negative variances and is part of the Perform Integrated Change Control process

 

Earned value management (EVM) is a methodology that combines scope, schedule, and resource measurements to assess project performance and progress.

 

Forecasting involves making projections of conditions and events in the project’s future based on current performance information and other knowledge available at the time of the forecast.

 

To-Complete Performance Index (TCPI) is a measure of the cost performance that is required to be achieved with the remaining resources in order to meet a specified management goal.

 

AC is the actual cost incurred

 

Earned Value EV value of the work actually accomplished

 

Planned Value (PV) is the value of the work planned to be done.

 

CPI refers to Cost Performance Index. It is defined as CPI = EV/AC (If CPI is less than 1, this means that the project is over budget).

 

SPI refers to Schedule Performance Index. It is defined as SPI = EV/PV

 

Budget at Completion (BAC) funds you have BUDGETED for the total Job. EAC = BAC/CPI

 

Estimate at Complete (EAC) current total expectation of project cost.

 

Estimate to Complete (ETC) from now on, how much MORE do we expect it to cost to finish the project.

ETC = EAC - AC

 

Variance at Completion (VAC) how much over or under budget do we expect it to be. VAC = BAC - EAC

 

The calculated CV, SV, CPI, SPI, TCPI, and VAC values for WBS components, in particular the work packages and control accounts, are documented and communicated to stakeholders.

 

If the schedule is inflexible, then the only possible tradeoffs available to the project manager may be cost versus quality.

 

The following will help you answer over 8 questions on the exam:

 

1.       CV = EV – AC

2.       SV = EV – PV

3.       CPI = EV/AC

4.       SPI = EV/PV

5.       BAC = Sum total of all the planned values

6.       EAC = BAC / CPI

7.       EAC = AC + ETC -- Initial Estimates are flawed

8.       EAC = AC + BAC - EV -- Future variance are Atypical

9.       EAC = AC + (BAC - EV) / CPI -- Future Variance would be typical

10.    ETC = EAC - AC

11.    % of work complete - EV/ BAC

12.    VAC = BAC – EAC

13.    Formula for To-Complete Performance Index (TCPI),

TCPI = (Work Remaining)/(Budget Remaining)

This formula can be interpreted in two ways:

If you’re under budget

TCPI = (BAC–EV)/(BAC–AC)

If you’re over Budget

TCPI = (BAC–EV)/(EAC–AC)

 

The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Control Costs process are given below:

 

Project Management Plan
Earned Value Management
Work Performance Information
Project Funding Requirements
Forecasting
Cost Forecasts
Work Performance Data
To-Complete Performance Index (TCPI)
Change Requests
Organizational Process Assets
Performance Reviews
Project Management Plan Updates
 
Project Management Software
Project Documents updates
 
Reserve Analysis
Organizational Process Assets updates

 

 

No comments:

Post a Comment