Tuesday, 25 October 2016

Education Edge PMP PMBOK Week 6 Office Read - Human Resource Knowledge Area

Human Resource Knowledge Area

Project Human Resources Management includes the processes that organize, manage and lead the project team.
Project Management team is a subset of the project team and is responsible for the project management and leadership activities.
The knowledge area of Project Human Resource Management consists of the following four processes:
Process Name
Project Management Process Group
Key Deliverables
Plan Human Resource Management
Human Resource Management Plan
Acquire Project Team
Resource Calendars, Project Staff Assignments
Develop Project Team
Team Performance Assessments
Manage Project Team
Change Requests
Plan Human Resource Management is the process of identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, and required skills, reporting relationships and creating staffing management plan.
This plan contains
·       training needs
·       team building strategies
·       plans for recognition and reward programs
·       compliance considerations
·       safety issues
·       impact of the staffing management plan on the organization
Staff management plan includes the timetable for staff acquisition and release.
Hierarchical charts, Matrix charts and text-oriented position description are examples of Organization charts and position descriptions.
A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is a grid that shows the project resources assigned to each work package.
One example of a RAM is a RACI (responsible, accountable, consult, and inform) chart.
Networking is the formal and informal interaction with others in an organization, industry, or professional environment.
Expectancy Theory – Employees who believe their efforts will lead to effective performance and who expect to be rewarded for their accomplishments will productive as rewards meet their expectations.
Fringe Benefits – These are the standard benefits formally given to all employees, such as education benefits, insurance, and profit sharing.
McGregor’s Theory of X and Y:
·       Theory X - People need to be watched every minute. People are incapable, avoid responsibility and avoid work whenever possible.
·       Theory Y - People are willing to work without supervision and want to achieve. People can direct their own efforts.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Self-actualization is the highest level in Maslow’s pyramid.
David McClelland’s Theory of Needs corresponds to need of achievement, affiliation and power.
Herzberg’s Theory – This theory deals with hygiene factors and motivating agents.
Halo Effect – is the tendency to rate team members high or low on all factors due to the impression of high or low rating on some specific factor.
The human resource management plan includes:
·        Roles and responsibilities
·        Project organization charts
·        Staffing management plan
Resource Histogram – Part of resource optimization strategy.
The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Plan Human Resources Management process are given below:
Project Management Plan
Organization Charts and Position Descriptions
Human Resource Management Plan
Activity Resource Requirements
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Theory
Organizational Process Assets
Expert Judgment
Acquire Project Team is the process of confirming human resource availability and obtaining the team necessary to complete project assignments.
When project team members are selected in advance, they are considered pre-assigned.
Staff assignments are negotiated on many projects. The project management team may need to negotiate with:
·       Functional managers
·       Other project management teams within the performing organization
·       External organizations, vendors, suppliers, contractors, etc.
Acquisition - When the performing organization is unable to provide the staff needed to complete a project, the required services may be acquired from outside sources.
Virtual Teams - Groups of people with a shared goal but do not or rarely meet face to face.
By use of a multi-criteria decision analysis tool, criteria are developed and used to rate or score potential team members.
Resource calendars document the time periods that each project team member is available to work on the project

The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Acquire Project Team process are given below:
Human Resource Management Plan
Project Staff Assignments
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Resource Calendars
Organizational Process Assets
Project Management Plan Updates
Virtual Teams
Multi-criteria Decision Analysis
Develop Project Team is the process of improving the competencies, team interaction, team environment to enhance project performance.
Interpersonal skills, sometimes known as “soft skills,” are behavioral competencies that include proficiencies:
·       communication skills
·       emotional intelligence
·       conflict resolution
·       negotiation
·       influence
·       team building
·       group facilitation
Team member may require training in order to perform on the project or to enhance their performance.
Five stages of Team-Building Activities:

·       Forming
·       Storming
·       Norming
·       Performing
·       Adjourning


Ground rules establish clear expectations regarding acceptable behavior by project team members.


Colocation - Placing all or almost all of the most active project team members in the same physical location to enhance their ability to perform as a team.


Recognition and Rewards must be clear, explicit, and achievable.


Personnel assessment tools give the project manager and the project team insight into areas of strength and weakness.


A formal or informal assessment of the team’s effectiveness is a part of project manager’s responsibility.


Power is the potential ability to influence behavior to get people to do things they would not normally do.

·       Legitimate (formal)

·       Coercive (punishment)

·       Reward

·       Expert

·       Referent


Laissez-Faire – Meaning “to let do” – Minimal or no interference by authority.

The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Develop Project Team process are given below:


Human Resource Management Plan
Interpersonal Skills
Team Performance Assessments
Project Staff Assignments
Enterprise Environmental Factors updates
Resource Calendars
Team-Building Activities
Ground rules
Recognition and Rewards
Personnel Assessment Tools


Manage Project Team is the process of tracking team members performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing changes to optimize project performance.


Project management team observes team behavior, manages conflicts, resolves issues, and appraises team member performance.


Project Manager should stay in touch with the work & attitudes of project team members.


360 degree feedback principles may also be used to evaluate the performance.


Sources of conflict include:

·        Scarce resources

·        Scheduling priorities

·        Personal work styles


Five general techniques for resolving conflict:

·       Withdraw/Avoid – Neutral/Neutral

·       Smooth/Accommodate – Lose/Win

·       Compromise/Reconcile – Lose/Lose

·       Force/Direct – Win/Lose

·       Collaborate/Problem Solve – Win/Win


The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Manage Project Team process are given below:


Human Resource Management Plan
Observation and Conversation
Change Requests
Project Staff Assignments
Project Performance Appraisals
Project Management Plan Updates
Team Performance Assessments
Conflict Management
Project Documents updates
Issue Log
Interpersonal Skills
Enterprise Environmental Factors updates
Work Performance Reports
Organizational Process Assets updates
Organizational Process Assets


Education Edge PMP PMBOK Week 4 Office Read - Quality Knowledge Area

Project Quality Management
Project Quality Management determines quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.


Project Quality Management supports continuous process improvement activities as undertaken on behalf of the performing organization.


Quality is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements.


Grade is a category assigned to products or services having the same functional use but different technical characteristics.


Precision means the value of repeated measurements are clustered and have little scatter.


Accuracy means that the measured value is very close to the true value.


Cost of quality refers to the total cost of all efforts related to quality throughout the product life cycle.


Quality Philosophies associated to:


W. Edwards Deming – PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act), Quality is a Management problem, Started the TQM movement

Dr. Joseph Juran – 80/20 Principle, Fitness for Use, Quality & Grade

Phillip Crosby – Zero Defects, Quality is ‘Free’, Right’ the First Time, Prevention is the ‘Key’


Kaizen is a Japanese word that means gradual continuous improvement.


The knowledge area of Project Quality Management consists of the following three processes:


Process Name
Project Management Process Group
Key Deliverables
Plan Quality Management
Quality Management Plan, Process Improvement Plan
Perform Quality Assurance
Change Requests
Perform Quality Control
Monitoring and Controlling
Validated Deliverables, Validated Changes


Plan Quality Management is the process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables.


Quality planning must consider cost-benefit tradeoffs by performing Cost-Benefit Analysis.


Cost of quality includes all costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in preventing non-conformance to requirements, appraising the product or service for conformance to requirements, and failing to meet requirements (rework).


Cost of Conformance – Money spent before or during project to avoid failures

Prevention Costs

Appraisal Costs

Cost of non-conformance – Money spent during and after the project because of failures

              Internal Failure Costs

External Failure Costs


Seven Basic Quality Tools


Cause-and-effect diagrams, which are also known as fishbone diagrams or as Ishikawa diagrams


Flowcharts, which are also referred to as process maps because they display the sequence of steps and the branching possibilities that exist


Check sheets, which are also known as tally sheets and may be used as a checklist when gathering data


Pareto diagrams exist as a special form of vertical bar chart and are used to identify the vital few sources that are responsible for causing most of a problem’s effects


Histograms are a special form of bar chart and are used to describe the central tendency, dispersion, and shape of a statistical distribution


Control charts, are used to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance


Scatter diagrams, plot ordered pairs (X, Y) and are sometimes called correlation charts because they seek to explain a change in the dependent variable


Benchmarking involves comparing actual or planned project practices to those of comparable projects to identify best practices.


Design of experiments (DOE) is a statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production.


Statistical sampling involves choosing part of a population of interest for inspection.


The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Plan Quality Management process are given below:


Project Management Plan
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Quality Management Plan
Stakeholder Register
Cost of Quality
Process Improvement Plan
Risk Register
Seven Basic Quality Tools
Quality Metrics
Requirements Documentation
Quality Checklists
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Design of Experiments
Project Documents updates
Organizational Process Assets
Statistical Sampling
Additional quality planning tools


Perform Quality Assurance is the process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.


The key benefit of this process is that it facilitates the improvement of quality processes.


The quality metrics provide the attributes that should be measured and the allowable variations.

Seven Quality Management and Control Tools


Affinity diagrams is similar to mind-mapping techniques in that they are used to generate ideas that can be linked to form organized patterns of thought about a problem.


Process decision program charts (PDPC) used to understand a goal in relation to the steps for getting to the goal.


Interrelationship digraphs provide a process for creative problem solving in moderately complex scenarios that possess intertwined logical relationships for up to 50 relevant items.


Tree diagrams also known as systematic diagrams and may be used to represent decomposition hierarchies such as the WBS, RBS (risk breakdown structure), and OBS (organizational breakdown structure).


Prioritization matrices – Identify the key issues and the suitable alternatives to be prioritized as a set of decisions for implementation.


Activity network diagrams previously known as arrow diagrams. They include both the AOA (Activity on Arrow) and, most commonly used, AON (Activity on Node) formats of a network diagram.


Matrix diagrams used to perform data analysis within the organizational structure created in the matrix.


A quality audit is a structured, independent process to determine if project activities comply with organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures.


Process analysis follows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements.


The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Perform Quality Assurance process are given below:


Quality Management Plan
Quality Management and Control Tools
Change Requests
Process Improvement Plan
Quality audits
Project Management Plan Updates
Quality Metrics
Process analysis
Project Documents updates
Quality Control Measurements
Organizational Process Assets updates
Project Documents


Control Quality is the process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes.


Control Quality should be performed throughout the project.


Prevention (keeping errors out of the process); Inspection (keeping errors out of the hands of the customer)


Attribute sampling (result conforms, or it doesn't)


Variables sampling (the result is rated on a continuous scale that measures the degree of conformity)


Statistical sampling (measures only a percentage of items e.g. 5 out of every 100)


Special causes (unusual events)


Common or random causes (normal process variation)

Tolerances (the result is acceptable if it falls within range specified by tolerance)


Control limits (the process is in control if the result falls within the control limits)


A deliverable is any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability that results in a validated deliverable required by the project.


An inspection is the examination of a work product to determine if it conforms to documented standards.


Rule of Seven which is when 7 values in a row are all below or all above the mean or increase/decrease in one direction.


Quality control measurements are the documented results of control quality activities.


The results of performing the Control Quality process are verified deliverables.


Work Performance Information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context and integrated based on relationships across areas.


The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Output of Control Quality process are given below:


Project Management Plan
Seven Basic Quality Tools
Quality Control Measurements
Quality Metrics
Statistical Sampling
Validated Changes
Quality Checklists
Validated Deliverables
Work Performance Data
Approved Change Requests Review
Work Performance Information
Approved Change Requests
Change Requests
Project Management Plan Updates
Project Documents
Project Documents updates
Organizational Process Assets
Organizational Process Assets updates